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Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRV’s) sanctions and consequences

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Knowledge level: Beginner

All Cycling

Article posted: 25/01/2014

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It is not simply the detection of a prohibited substance in a sample that can result in an ADRV. From 1st January 2015 there are ten ADRVs that can result in a sanction and these are not only applicable to riders. Rider support personnel could be liable for the starred ADRVs below.

Riders serving a ban must continue to take their anti-doping responsibilities seriously as they are still subject to anti-doping rules and therefore to strict liability.

1. Presence of a prohibited substance in their blood or urine sample.

2. Use, or attempted use, of a prohibited substance or method.

3. Failure or refusal without compelling justification to submit to sample collection.

4. Provision of inaccurate rider whereabouts information resulting in any combination of three missed tests and/or filing failures in an 18 month period.

5. Tampering, or attempted tampering, with any part of the doping control process.*

6. Possession of a prohibited substance or method.*

7. Trafficking, or attempted trafficking, of a prohibited substance or method.*

8. Administration, or attempted administration, of a prohibited substance or method to any athlete; or assisting, encouraging, aiding, abetting or covering up an ADRV.*

9. Complicity- involvement in an ADRV committed by another person, such as helping to cover up that ADRV or avoid detection.

10. Prohibited Association- Associating with such a person as a coach, doctor or physio who has been found guilty of a criminal or disciplinary offence  equivalent to a doping violation

Consequences of ADRVs

Committing an ADRV carries consequences for the rider/support personnel. They could be disqualified and forfeit any medals, titles, points and prizes earned from a related event or competition. They could also be banned from sport, which could be a lifetime ban.

Under the 2015 Code, cheating involving serious doping substances (for example, steroids, EPO, growth hormone) and calculated methods (for example, blood transfusion) will be sanctioned with 4- year bans. Refusal or evading ample collection will now be sanctioned with bans of up to 4 years.

Reducing or eliminating bans

There may be circumstances where the length of the ban can be reduced, particularly if their ADRV relates to presence, use or possession of a specified prohibited substance.

Specified substances are those that are more susceptible to a credible, non-doping explanation. Non-specified substances and all methods are considered as the reverse. If the ADRV involved a specified substance and that rider can establish how it got into their body or came into their possession, and could prove that it was not intended to enhance their performance or to mask the use of another substance, they may receive a reduced ban.

A ban imposed for any ADRV, whether involving a specified substance or not, may be eliminated or reduced if the rider/support personnel can prove they held no, or no significant, fault or negligence for the ADRV occurring. If the rider or support personnel proves they demonstrated utmost caution in preventing an ADRV from occurring (i.e. ‘leaving no reasonable stone unturned’) then they may have their ban reduced. This happens rarely and under the 2015 Code, WADA will hold ultimate discretion over this. The more common situation is where a rider can prove they were not significantly at fault for the ADRV, and in this circumstance they may have their ban reduced by up to half.

Aggravating circumstances and multiple violations

Aggravating circumstances include: the ADRV was committed as part of a doping plan or scheme; the rider or support personnel engaged in deceptive or obstructive conduct to avoid detection; and the rider or support personnel used or possessed multiple prohibited substances or methods.

If the rider or support person admits the ADRV promptly after being confronted with it by the NADO, an increased ban for aggravating circumstances may be avoided.

An ADRV for trafficking or administering prohibited substances to a minor is considered a particularly serious offence and could result in a lifetime ban from sport.

Suspension of a ban

WADA may suspend part of a ban if a rider or support person provides substantial assistance that result in the discovery or establishment of an ADRV or criminal offence by another person.

Eligibility during a ban

Those serving a ban may not participate in any capacity in a competition, event or any other activity (including training) organised or recognised by British Cycling or its member or affiliate clubs. The Code requires that this ban will be recognised by other NGBs and IFs. Funding will also be withheld during a ban. Riders can be tested at any time during a ban.

Additional consequences to riders

Additional sanctions, such as financial penalties, may be imposed to individuals who commit ADRVs.

Reinstatement

Riders serving a ban from cycling can still be tested at any time and in any place and may be asked to provide whereabouts information during their ban. UKAD will make the individual aware of this when their ban starts.

If a rider retires during their ban but later wishes to be reinstated, they are not eligible until they have notified British Cycling and UKAD of their desire for reinstatement and made themselves available for testing for the time period that remained of their ban when they retired.

Once a rider/support personnel’s ban has expired, any outstanding costs or penalties have been paid and they have made themselves available for testing, they automatically become re-eligible to compete.

Riders serving a ban must continue to take their anti-doping responsibilities seriously as they are still subject to anti-doping rules and therefore to strict liability.

Health consequences of doping

Riders should be aware that doping can have severe health and social consequences.

Below are listed some of the potential health consequences of doping:

 

Prohibited substance

Possible health consequences

Steroids

acne; mood swings; libido disorders; high blood pressure; cardiovascular and liver disease; psychological dependence; contracting hepatitis and HIV from needle use, developing features of the opposite gender

Human Growth Hormone

(HGH)

risk of diabetes in those already at risk; worsening of cardiovascular diseases; muscle, joint and bone pain; hypertension and cardiac deficiency; abnormal growth of organs; accelerated osteoarthritis

Erythropoietin

(EPO)

By thickening the blood, EPO abuse can lead to heart disease, a stroke and cerebral or pulmonary embolism.

Stimulants

increased heart rate, palpitations or cardiac irregularities; insomnia, anxiety, tremor and aggressiveness; inhibited judgement or decision making, dehydration.

Amphetamines

anxiety, ventricular dysrhythmias, hypertension, hallucinations, addiction, death.

Narcotics

increased pain threshold and failure to recognise injury; loss of balance and coordination; sedation.

Insulin

hypoglycaemia, drowsiness, coma, brain damage, death

Blood Doping

allergic reaction, acute hemolytic reactions with kidney damage if incorrect blood type is used; delayed transfusion reactions resulting in fever and jaundice; transmission of infectious diseases; overload of the circulatory system and blood clots

Social consequences of doping

The social consequences of committing an ADRV and receiving a sanction may include:

• Loss of sponsorship deals

• Loss of income

• Financial implications

• Achievements eradicated

• Relationships with friends and family put under pressure

• Isolation from peers and sport

• Restrictions on current and future career prospects

• Depression

When cycling is the most significant part of a rider or rider support person’s life, the impact of the above can be enormously destructive. David Millar was famously found guilty of an ADRV and banned from cycling in 2004. The below video highlights the impact this has had on him and his career and should serve as a suitable deterrent to doping to all cyclists.

For further information visit www.ukad.org.uk

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